Expert Quiz

 

Answers are in MODERN ARBORICULTURE, a new book by Dr. Alex L. Shigo.  The pages with the answers are given after the questions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the major difference between wood cells and animal cells?  26
  2. List five ways to resist stress and strain in a living system?  31
  3. Name the major parts of a tree flower.  34
  4. Where do buds get the energy to start growth?  35
  5. What is meant by excurrent and decurrent branching?  37
  6. What are three basic nodal patterns.  39
  7. What are the major differences between sapwood and heartwood?  47
  8. Define epidermis, cortex, and parenchyma.  49
  9. Contrast ring porous, diffuse porous, and conifer wood.  50-52
  10.  What are two types of coniferous wood?  52
  11.  What are resign ducts?  52
  12.   What 3 tissues make up the periderm?  53
  13.   What is wood?  53
  14.   Contrast symplast and apoplast.  54
  15.   Describe the development of vessels.  55
  16.   How do tyloses form?  57
  17.   What are contact parenchyma?  58
  18.   When fusiform initials differentiate, what do they form.  57
  19.   Describe reaction wood, compression wood and tension wood.  63
  20.   Contrast heartwood and discolored wood.  64
  21.   Contrast wounds in sapwood and heartwood.  65
  22.   What is vigor and how can it be measured?  67
  23.   What is meant by microbial succession after wounding?  70
  24.   Contrast the concepts of heartwood and compartmentalization.  73
  25.   Describe the 4 model walls in CODIT.  74-75
  26.   What is a barrier zone?  80
  27.   Describe how to date a wound.  81
  28.   Describe the development of fire blight.  85
  29.   What are branch collars and trunk collars?  86-87
  30.   What is the branch protection zone?  90
  31.   What is meant my natural target pruning?  92
  32.   Why is there no set angle for a correct cut?  93
  33.   If cavities for wildlife are wanted, what is the best way to prune?  95
  34.   Why are flush cuts so injurious?  104
  35.   What is included bark?  104
  36.   What are the two types of epicormic sprouts?  105
  37.   What are codominant stems?  107
  38.   What does excessive sprouting indicate?  115
  39.   What is pollarding?  116
  40.   What does 90-3-90 mean for utility pruning?  119
  41.   What does natural directional pruning mean for utility pruning?  122
  42.   What are suppressed and elite sprouts?  127 128
  43.   What are rusts?  136
  44.   What are rams horns?  137
  45.   Give 4 basic ways microorganisms infect stems and roots.  139
  46.   What are cankers?  140
  47.   How do canker rots develop?  141
  48.   Contrast stress and strain.  144
  49.   At what phenological period do wounds cause the greatest injury?  145
  50.   Contrast callus and woundwood.  147 149
  51.   What is the correct way to scribe wounds?  150 151
  52.   Contrast ants and termites.  155
  53.   Contrast mites and insects.  156
  54.   What are nematodes?   157
  55.   Why should drain tubes not be inserted to drain water from cavities?  161
  56.   What portions of a trunk are the strongest against the spread of infection?  165
  57.   What is wetwood?  173
  58.   Contrast wetwood with sap flow.  173
  59.   How do trees wound themselves?  175
  60.   How does black sooty mold develop?  177
  61.   What are yeast?  178
  62.   What are the two basic types of trunk cracks?  180
  63.   What are ring shakes?   184
  64.   What is protection wood?  189
  65.   Name at least 5 types of protection wood.  189
  66.   What is energy?  190
  67.   Describe very briefly how energy comes from the sun to green plants.  191 192
  68.   What are 2 major abiotic factors regulate photosynthesis?  193
  69.   Why are manganese and iron important in photosynthesis?   194
  70.   What is ADP?  195
  71.   What are the four major ways energy is used by trees?  197
  72.   What is respiration?  200
  73.   Name at least 5 major survival factors for trees.  209
  74.   What are the 3 major ways trees die?  210
  75.   What is meant by infection?  212
  76.   What are enzymes?  216
  77.   Give the major cell types in a leaf.  219
  78.   What are two functions of guard cells?  220
  79.   Describe briefly how water and elements enter roots.  222
  80.   Describe briefly transport in phloem.  226
  81.   What is meant by potential and kinetic energy?   229
  82.   What is the first major substance formed by nitrogen in roots?  234
  83.   Why do some clays expand and shrink greatly?  242
  84.   Name the 13 essential elements found in most soils.  244
  85.   What are ions?  245
  86.   What does pH 7 mean?  246
  87.   Describe briefly osmotic pressure.  297
  88.   What is plasmolysis?  248
  89.   What are root hairs?  250
  90.   What are mycorrhizae?   251
  91.   Discuss briefly the mass, energy ratio.  256
  92.   Describe briefly, tanning of leaves.  259
  93.   What is a young tree?  264
  94.   What are 5 major phenological periods?  268
  95.   Describe briefly how the Shigometer measures vitality.  279
  96.   How can you determine starch reserves in cells?  277
  97.   What is meant by cluster planting?  305
  98.   List at least 10 early signs of tree hazards.  318
  99.   Describe briefly, 2 major ways branches fracture.  323
  100.   What are dwarf mistletoes?  341

 

For more information on trees, see books, booklets, pamphlets, slides and video

Published by

SHIGO AND TREES, ASSOCIATES


Dictionary MAIN PAGE
Text & Graphics Copyright 2010 Keslick & Son Modern Arboriculture
Please report web site problems, comments and words of interest, not found.
Contact