To view and download the official document: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/4138
Managing Cavity Trees for Wildlife in the Northeast
Richard M. DeGraaf
Alex L. Shigo
United States Department of Agriculture
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station
General Technical Report NE-101
Richard M. DeGraaf is Principal Research Wildlife Biologist and Leader of the Research Unit on wildlife communities and habitat relationships in New England forests, located at the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
Alex L. Shigo is Chief Scientist and Leader of the Pioneering Research Unit on discoloration and decay in living trees, located at the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, NH.
Manuscript received for publication 20 September 1984 ,
This paper is a guide for woodland owners, managers, or arborists who want to provide key habitat components for northeastern cavity-nesting birds and mammals that use tree dens. Methods for creating and maintaining cavity trees, snags, and den trees are described.
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