Clays  - Clays are crystals of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen mostly.  Clays are like sandwiches. Some are two layered and some are three layered.  Some clays, especially the two layered clays, increase or decrease their charges as pH increases or decreases.  Two to one clays or the three-layered clays have a permanent charge not affected by pH.  Ammonium ion has a molecular weight of 18 and potassium is 39, yet they are about the same size.  This is important because they compete for space in some clay crystals.  Ammonium cation has a single positive charge.  If clay is around, the cation usually bonds with the negative sites on the crystals.  Clays are party centers.  They have lots of negative spots that attract the wandering positive ions.  Fun!

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