Economics  - Changes and adjustments that lead to improvements will seldom occur unless you can show the client that there will be a saving of time or money.  The practitioner will seldom make changes or adjustments unless you can show that there will be a saving of time and an increase in profit.  There are always exceptions, but economics usually determine what changes and adjustments will be made.  The greatest resistance to the new tree biology and the adjustments it brings has been the fear that profit will be decreased.  Fear and faith are the 2 greatest motivators.  Fear means something bad will happen, and faith means something good will happen.  The new biology aims at faith in health.  If an organism is healthy, more good things than bad things will likely happen.  The classic tree care focuses on crisis management and fear; wait until bad things happen and then "fix" them.  The tree clients in homes, cities, orchards, and even forests are beginning to realize that that kind of crisis management is costly; poor economics.  We get back to money very quickly.  Why pay good money for a treatment that will hurt the tree?  As the tree clients become more aware of what constitutes sound tree care, the older, more costly and injurious treatments will begin to decrease.  Why pay for flush cut pruning when such a treatment starts at least 14 serious tree problems?  Why pay for wound paints and for the great time to apply them, when research by many scientists shows that they do not stop decay?  The practitioners are learning that health not only profits, the tree, but also the tree worker.  Health care is a long-term job, not a single-visit activity.  The economics of health care is good for the tree owner and the practitioner.  Here is a case where changes can benefit all three; the tree owner, the practitioner, and the tree.  In the tree farms, management for high quality trees will be economically sound.  A few veneer grade trees will yield more profit than acres of chip-grade trees.  It will also be economically sound to transport high quality trees long distances.  It is not economically sound to transport low quality trees even short distances.  In the end, economics will guide many future tree programs in the cities and forests.

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