Needles - Needles are well constructed for extremes in temperature and moisture - thick waxy coating, sunken stomata, and chlorophyll in shallow deep cells. The angular shape of needles holds water droplets and collects droplets of fog. Fog water may be different from rain water because there may be more of the oxygen 18 isotope in fog water, and fog water can contain higher concentrations of acids and elements. Dead or Alive "The Ecological Stages of Leaves and Needles" from the buds which they were born alive - to the "Rainbow of Humic Acids" in which they proceed, they function with system purpose and need, within the horizons of soil.
Click here for some words on needles and leaves.
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