Phenology  - Phenology is the timing of natural processes: flushing, reproduction, wood formation, energy storage, shedding, dormancy.  More on the topic:  Phenology is the study of periodic biological processes, or the timing of natural processes and phenomena, such as onset of growth, bud swelling, leaf formation, cambial growth, wood and bark growth, root growth, and development of non-woody roots, the timing of root-fungus associations, shedding of leaves and non-woody roots, etc.  Trees do not follow a set calendar pattern.  The tree activities occur at different times in different years.  It is also possible to have two trees of the same species growing close to each other, yet the timing for their processes may be separated by days of even weeks.  It is common to see this when trees begin to form leaves, and the leaves die and are shed in the fall.  Individual sugar maple trees may be weeks apart in their leaf shedding.  Tree treatments, to be effective, must be done in line with phonological events.  In orchards, trees of the same genotype are grown in one area, and this does synchronize the phonological events.  This is good when helpful treatments are considered.  It  is very bad if a pathogen strikes at a weak moment in the life of the trees.  A good gardener never goes by a calendar.  A good arborist or forester should also know the timing of the trees processes and make treatment decisions on this information.  Askenasy was a Russian fruit horticulturist who worked out the phenological periods for apples and cherries.  (See MODERN ARBORICULTURE, SHIGO, 1991, pg 271)

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