Pioneer  - The microorganisms that are the first to infect a wound are called PIONEERS.  Which microorganisms become the pioneers is affected greatly by many factors-time of year of wounding; type, position, and severity of wound.  The pioneers in turn affect greatly the species of microorganisms that follow in the succession.  And, the species that follow will affect greatly the rate and type of wood alteration. Successions are orderly, but complex. 
Pioneer microorganisms are those that can survive on the wound surface against others, digest or alter protection chemicals produced by the tree after wounding, and then spread into the tree while keeping other organisms from taking their place for as long as possible.  The pioneers are tough and we must feel kind of sorry for them. Microorganisms that can fruit in confined places are some of the most aggressive pioneers.

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