Soil / New - Logging increases the loss of nutrients from the site. Such spots would have been excellent for the establishment and growth of vegetation, including tree seedlings. Vegetation would have been established on and help stabilize this "new soil", and as invertebrates and small vertebrates would have begun to burrow into the new soil, they would not only nutritionally enrich it with their feces and urine but also constantly mix it by their burrowing activities (Maser and Trappe, 1984).
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