113. Logging has been noted to be the primary cause linked to
reforestation problems where studies on logging were done (NOT DEER).
NATIONAL WOOD FIBER NEEDS indicate substantial increases in demand for wood fiber - based products. This demand has resulted in increased efforts to remove all available fiber at harvesting sites. Intensive fiber removal or intense wildfire potentially reduces the parent materials (duff and wood residues) available for the production of organic reserves in forest soils. This reserve, primarily in the form of humus, decayed wood, and charcoal, has been shown critical to the support of both nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixing and ectomycorrhizal activities in forest soils of western Montana. Harvest and fire-caused reductions of organic materials on and in northern forest soils have been linked to reforestation problems. This study was undertaken to provide a preliminary estimate of the impact of varying amounts and kinds of soil organic matter on ectomycorrhizal development in mature western Montana forests (Harvey, Jurgensen and Larsen, 1981).
114. Logging of ectomycorrhizal tree hosts removes the energy source of ectomycorrhizal fungi, which will not fruit without their host plants. Preservation of a threatened or endangered species involves preservation of its habitat and the diversity that habitat entails. When such becomes a goal of forest management, managers need information not only on owls or small mammals, but also on the mycorrhizal fungi that form the base of the food web (Amaranthus, Trappe and Bednar, 1994).
115. Logging removes host for fungi such as Ganoderma Tsuga. Fungi feeders, E.g., In the Northwest - California red-backed voles to black tailed deer, may obtain some of their protein nitrogen from decaying trees by feeding on fungal fruiting bodies, such as what some call truffles and mushrooms (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 36-par 3). Logging may increase browsing on other plants. Also some other plants may be eaten for moisture during dryer times where moisture reservoirs are few or non.
116. Logging is the removal of mature and maturing trees which conserve essential elements, whereas the area containing new very young planted trees following logging are susceptible to erosion and essential element loss (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg5-par3).
117. Logging removes deeper, multi layered canopies, larger accumulations, of coarse woody debris (any symplastless standing or fallen tree stem at least 4 inches in diameter at breast height (D.B.H.) on snags and at the large end on fallen trees), and removes chances of more specialized plants and animals (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg5-par3).
118. Logging is removing material and removing its ability to interact with the plants and animals of the forest floor and soil over a long period of forest successional history. Large fallen trees can take more than 400 years to become incorporated into the forest floor (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988,pg37-last par). Without this massive part of an organism, how do the associates function?
119. Logging removes material that would have greatly influenced subsequent diversity of both external and internal plant and animal habitats (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par4).
120. Logging removes materials that would have provided a changing spectrum of habitats over many decades, even centuries (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par4).
121. Logging removes material that would have provided diversity within a given successional stage and forms a physical-chemical link through the many successional stages of a forest (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par4).
122. Logging removes the processes CWD would have with its environment through internal surface areas.
123. Logging is removing the needed material that certain organisms have the job to enter and gain entrance to the interior, which they consume and break down wood cells and fibers. (Hey, this is why they were created) Which the larger organisms – mites, collembolans, spiders, millipedes, centipedes, amphibians, and small mammals must await the creation of internal spaces before they can enter (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg42-par2).
124. Logging alters the flow of plant and animal populations, air, water, and essential elements which would have proceeded if logging was not done and would have increased as decomposition continued. (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg42-par2). The point, if you please, is that when you remove the masses of CWD you disrupt, deplete thus causing dysfunction (leading to Death by means of Killing) the designed essential environmental health needs of plant, animal populations, air, water and essential elements. Than man claims that the system is not returning to the conditions prior logging (given many fancy names), then points the finger to deer claiming they are responsible for the problem. The problem is that things big and small are leaving this planet. As latter statements mention, much needed material for health is removed in logging which would have benefited the deer and system. Why not call the forest a deer system (heart – lungs – liver – kidneys – feet = parts of system) Man is the only known organism that makes decisions regarding trees out of the ignorance of tree biology and than adds insult to injury.
125. Logging is removing tree parts that would have created and maintained diversity in forest communities (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg44-par3).
126. Logging is removing material that would have resided on the once fertile forest floor for long periods, would have added to spatial, chemical, and biotic diversity of forest soils, and to the processes that maintain long-term forest productivity (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg44-par3).
127. Logging then is reducing spatial, chemical, and biotic diversity of forest soils, and the processes that maintain long-term forest productivity (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg44-par3).
128. Logging is removing material that that partly would have maintain the once fertile forest floors diversity which is partly maintained by windthrown trees that create a pit-and-mound topography as they are uprooted (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg45-fig2.7).
129. Logging is removing material that would have functioned seedbeds or nurse logs for some trees species and many species of bryophytes, fungi, and lichens, and some flowering plants (Table 7.6) (Samuelsson et al. 1994; D.F. Fraser, pers. comm., 1995; E.C. Lea, pers. comm., 1995) (Voller and Harrison, 1998).
130. Conclusion: Without a doubt, the removal of CWD is the primary agent, which alters the system in which problems are blamed on secondary agents such as deer. Although there is a serious case of denial such as unobserved with the Painter Run Windthrow Salvage Project? We know many animals such as deer and bear use CWD for food supply. “Harvest and fire-caused reductions of organic materials on and in northern forest soils have been linked to reforestation problems (Harvey, Jurgensen and Larsen, 1981).
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