1.  In this paper I am focusing on the false premise that symplastless trees are dead, and non ecologically functioning biomass.  I will discuss symplast containing trees in another paper.

2.  I would like to eliminate the method of logging in this paper.  Just to simplify and add understanding, lets just look at removal technique, as by snapping your fingers and the wood would be removed, rather than horse, skidders, helicopters, etc. 

3.  Ice storms now leaving only trees not desired for lumber.  Not so bad for the forest.  Steel frame house stand better in the storms we are having like Hurricane Andrew.

4.  Removal, of woody debris, from streams or forests, in the name of economic progress is common.  But, the question is what are the short-term and long-term biological consequences? (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pg1-par5)

5.  Many insects, fungi, bacteria, and other organisms are thought to be harmful, yet very few of them are (SHIGO, 1999).  The insects and microorganisms have a job to do on earth. Many are "clean up" experts such as the fungus that parasitizing another mushroom fruiting body of another fungus (SHIGO, 1999 - Pg 105).  These organisms break down dead organisms to release or recycle elements essential for new life. Some organisms attack others that no longer have a defense system. A few attack living organisms that are healthy.  In spite of abiotic destructive forces and biotic agents such as insects, bacteria, and fungi, humans still rank as the major destructive agent for trees in forests and cities. Ignorance of tree biology is a major cause of this (SHIGO 1999).

6.  What are woody debris and what key roles or functions do they perform?

7.  Logging is removing a critical component of ecosystem processes (Voller and Harrison, 1998).

8.  Logging is removing material that supports physical, chemical, and biological functions in ecosystems These functions include essential element cycling, carbon storage, erosion control and slope stabilization, water cycling, soil formation, and stream movement processes  (Voller and Harrison, 1998).

9.  Logging reduces the organic parent material (duff and woody residues) available for soil-formation processes (Harvey, Larsen and Jurgensen, 1976)

10.  Logging is removing the needs for many insects, animals, fungi, plants, bacteria, water, etc.

11.  Many species of plants, fungi and animals are dependent on symplastless trees for nutrients, essential elements, habitat or substrate and nesting (Kruys and Jonsson, 1999).

12.  Logging is removal of a major component of a complex network of simultaneously developing minisystems-all interdependent (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 19-par 5).    

13.  Logging is the removal of a long term, stabilizing force within the forest (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 19-par 5).  

14.  Logging removes a major component of a complex network of simultaneously developing minisystems-all interdependent.  Ausmus ( 1977) stated the impact simply:   “. ..wood decomposition represents a long-term stabilizing force within the forest” (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 19-par 5).    

15.  Logging is the removal of large materials, which would offer multitudes of both external and internal habitats that change and would have persisted through decades.  One needs an understanding of the synergistic affects of constant small changes within a persistent large structure to appreciate the dynamics of a fallen tree and its function in an ecosystem (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 17-par 1).    

16.  Logging is removing structural components of great importance for forest dynamics and forest biodiversity.  The decomposition of trees provides an important link in cycling on nutrients in ecosystems.  In addition, many species of plants, fungi and animals are dependent on symplastless trees for salts of essential elements, nutrients, habitat and or substrate and nesting (Kruys and Jonsson, 1999).

17.  Logging is removing the needs of scavenger as well as competitors, which have enzyme (keys) systems.  Also removes the essential needs of fungi involved in this activity, which are often mutually antagonistic, so that a given part of the tree may be occupied by only one fungus that excludes others by physical or chemical means (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pg27-par4).   (We call this altered area a niche)

18.  Logging is removing a mass - that harbor a myriad of organisms, from bacteria and actinomycetes to higher fungi.  The smaller organisms, not visible to the unaided eye, are still important components of the system (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg16-par 5).    

19.  Logging is removing the capacity to accumulate moisture – carry essential elements and reduces essential element capital for the soil.  (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pg36-par6).    

20.  Logging is the removal of symplastless  and symplast containing trees which were linked together in the living machinery of a forest (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg25-par1).  

21.  Logging is removing habitats and niches for free-living bacteria which in woody residues and soil wood fix 30-60% of the nitrogen in the forest soil.  Symplastless wood in terrestrial ecosystems is a primary location for fungal colonization and often acts as refugia for mycorrhizal fungi during ecosystem disturbance (Triska and Cromack 1979; Harmon et al. 1986; Caza 1993) (Voller and Harrison, 1998).  

22.  We must look at not only the visual mass, which is being removed, or the board feet in which it may become or the landfill in which it will end up, but also the biological functions and processes, which the mass would have performed above as well as below ground.  In other words we are not just removing a functionless dead piece of material.

23.  So with that said, the question is “What chemicals, functions and processes are being removed”?  Then we must look over time.

24.  CWD plays an important role in the functioning of ecosystems. Its functional role in stream ecosystems has been well established and many stream restoration projects are underway. Its role in terrestrial ecosystems is still not completely understood  (Edmonds and Marra, 1999).

What we know.  I have attempted to make some categories.

25.  We cannot take one topic or organism in the forest and put it in a little box.  It all flows in the other boxes by connections.  This is the way it is.  I have tried to cover some topics of a forest – parts / processes.  A forest is like a spiders web.  You cannot expect to touch any one part without affecting the entire web.  Logging is removing some of the most massive longest-lived parts of the system while depleting underground components.  No other single organism on this planet houses more organisms than trees.  Trees are unique whereas the dead still contribute to the living.

26.  Just because I list a page and paragraph where data can be found, does not mean that its the only place in the document where it is discussed.

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