131. Logging of ectomycorrhizal tree hosts removes the energy
source of ectomycorrhizal fungi which will not fruit without their host plants
Preservation of a threatened or endangered species involves preservation
of its habitat and the diversity that habitat entails. When such becomes
a goal of forest management, managers need information not only on owls or
small mammals, but also on the mycorrhizal fungi that form the base of the
food web (Amaranthus, Trappe and Bednar, 1994).
132. Logging removes essentials for plants. E.g., We know some plants are likely, obligate CWD user such as Red Hackberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) (Voller and Harrison, 1998).
133. Logging is removing what would result in windthrown trees. Forest floor diversity is partly maintained by windthrown trees that create a pit-and-mound topography as they are uprooted (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg34-par2).
134. Logging is removing parts and processes of decomposition of fallen trees which releases essential elements for microbial and plant growth (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg36-par1).
135. Logging removes, regardless of size - materials that would take a considerably longer time to decompose than would needle and leaf duff. Needles, leaves, and small twigs decompose faster than larger woody material and essential elements are thereby recycled faster in the forest floor (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg37-last par).
136. Logging removes material that would, as it falls, be cycling essential elements for more than 400 years until such trees would become incorporated into the forest floor (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg37-last par). And then, still plays key roles in rainbows of humic acids and horizons.
137. Logging therefore removes the interaction with the plants and animals of the forest floor and soil over a long period of forest and stand successional history (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg37-last par).
138. Certainly our knowledge of biological processes and their interactions within forest is incomplete, and we know too little about the cumulative effect of a wide range of stresses on the ecosystem (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg1-par2).
139. Logging breaks connections. Integrative research at the ecosystem level shows clearly that the many processes operating within forest inter-connect in important ways. Further, diversity of microscopic and macroscopic plant and animal species is a key factor in maintaining these processes (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988,pg1-par2).
140. Logging is removing dying and symplastless wood, which would have provided one of the two or three greatest resources for animal species in a natural forest. If fallen timber and slightly decayed trees are removed the whole system is gravely impoverished of perhaps more than a fifth of its fauna (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pg1-par1). (These treatments (logging), plus several other treatments, are done on the Allegheny National Forest routinely by the USFS and called “reforestation”???)
141. Logging is removing material that would have offered multitudes of both external and internal habitats that would have changed and yet persisted through the decades. One needs an understanding of the synergistic effects of constant small changes within a persistent large structure to appreciate the dynamics of a fallen tree and its function in an ecosystem (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 17-par 1).
142. Logging is removing present and future symplastless storehouses for moisture, especially when soil contact is made, which were designed and would have provided moisture, for plants and animals during dry times such as summer, so called, drought. (Page-Dumroese, Harvey, Jurgensen and Graham, 1991). Lack of water, during dry times, can be the limiting factor for plant, animal and entire species survival (STEW).
143. Logging increases soil erosion. Logging effects soil development in an unhealthy fashion. Logging removes designed storehouses for essential elements and water for soil, animals and plants. Logging removes a potentially large source of energy (nutrients) and essential elements. Logging removes seedbeds for plants. Logging removes important habitat for fungi and arthropods. We know, During decomposition, logs and other forms of coarse woody debris (CWD) reduce erosion, affect soil development, store essential elements and water, are a potentially large source of energy (nutrients) and essential elements, serve as a seed bed for plants, and form an important habitat for fungi and arthropods (Kropp, 1982).
144. Logging stops the processes, which would take place between a fallen tree and its surroundings, which would have increased, as decomposition would have continued. E.g., The flow of plant and animal populations, air, water, and essential elements. (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 12-par1). Logging kills this system processes by means of disruption and depletion causing dysfunction.
145. Logging is removing symplastless trees that were designed to be structural components of great importance for forest dynamics and forest biodiversity. Logging is removing the processes of decomposition of trees, which were designed to provide an important link in cycling of nutrients and essential elements in ecosystems (Kruys and Jonsson, 1999).
146. Logging is removing the needs of many species of plants, fungi, and animals. Many are dependent on symplastless trees for nutrients, essential elements habitat or substrate and nesting (Kruys and Jonsson, 1999).
147. Logging reduces or stops the formation of “new soil”.
148. Logging increases the loss of nutrients and essential elements from the site. Such spots would have excellent for the establishment and growth of vegetation, including tree seedlings. Vegetation would have been established on and help stabilize this "new soil", and as invertebrates and small vertebrates would have begun to burrow into the new soil, they would not only have nutritionally enriched it with their feces and urine but also constantly mix it by their burrowing activities (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 4-par1&2).
149. Logging is removing initial, optimal and final stages of fallen trees. Plant - nutrient / essential elements - and the succession of plants on fallen trees is mediated by changes in essential element availability and physical properties over time. Three broad phases can be defined: initial, optimal, final. Early invaders prepare the tree for later colonization by altering its physical and chemical properties during the initial phase. The altered tree provides the best substrate for a wide array of organisms during the optimal phase. Ultimately, the depletion of essential elements and physical deterioration of the wood during the optimal phase diminish its value for many organisms, so fewer species inhabit the final phase (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 25-par 5).
150. Logging also has a negative effect on essential elements besides Nitrogen, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, and Phosphorus and other essential elements play key roles in soil, plant and tree health as well as the other associated living organisms (Page-Dumroese, Harvey, Jurgensen and Graham, 1991).
151. Logging removes what would be large fallen trees in various stages of decay which would have contributed to the much needed diversity to terrestrial and aquatic habitats (Maser and Trappe, 1984, abstract-par2).
152. Logging is removing material, that when most, biological activity in soil, is limited by low moisture availability in summer, would have provided a fallen tree-soil interface and would have offered a relatively cool, moist habitat for animals and a substrate for microbial and root activity (Maser and Trappe, 1984, Abstract-par2). Similar to taking peoples fans and air conditioners during summer.
153. Logging can deprive forest of large, fallen trees. The impact of this loss on habitat diversity and on long-term forest productivity must be determined because management need sound, information on which to base resource management decisions (Maser and Trappe, 1984, Abstract-par1).
154. Logging removes the wood and the moisture-holding capacity of the wood, which in turn effects succession of plants and animals (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pg4-par3).
155. Logging eliminates the formation of class IV stage of a fallen tree, which would have presented the most diversified habitat and hence supported the greatest array of inhabitants. The decayed heartwood (of heartwood forming trees) would have been relatively stable - so plants that would have become established upon it would have had time to grow substantial root systems (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 17-par 3).
156. Logging removes the ecological stage of trees where essential element cycling processes takes place in a forest through such mechanisms as duff fall (freshly fallen or slightly decomposed plant material from the canopy), throughfall (rain or dew that picks up elements as it falls through the canopy), nitrogen fixation, and essential element uptake by plants associated with the fallen trees (Maser and Trappe, 1984,pag 19-par2).
157. Logging is removing a gradually changing myriad of internal and external habitats. Plant and animal communities within a fallen tree are very different from those outside, but both progress through a series of orderly changes (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 36-par7).
158. Logging removes the structure, which would have eventually had a community surrounding it that would have been complex (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 38-par 1).
159. Logging is removing a connector between the successional stages of a community. The connector would have provided continuity of habitat from the previous forest through subsequent successional stages (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 38-par 1).
160. Logging is therefore removing physical links - an essential element savings account – through time and across successional stages (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 38-par 1).
161. Logging is removing a persistent long-term, stable structure on which some animal (both invertebrate and vertebrate) populations appear to depend on for survival (Maser and Trappe, 1984, pg 38-par 1).
162. Certainly our knowledge of biological processes and their interactions within forest is incomplete, and we know too little about the cumulative effect of a wide range of stresses on the ecosystem (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg1-par2).
Logging removes materials that would play key roles in the conservation of essential elements, whereas areas logged are susceptible to erosion and essential element loss (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg5-par4).
163. Logging reduces if not eliminates multi-layered canopies, removes and stops accumulation of larger accumulations of coarse woody debris (any symplastless standing or fallen tree stem at least 4 inches in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) on snags and at the large end on fallen trees) (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg5-par3).
164. Logging reduces and removes connections for survival of specialized plants and animals, which do survive in unlogged areas (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988,pg5-par3).
165. Logging removes material that would have greatly influences subsequent diversity of both external and internal plant and animal habitats (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par3).
166. Logging removes materials that would have provided a changing spectrum of habitats over many decades’ even centuries (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par3).
167. Logging removes material that would have provided diversity within a given successional stage and forms a physical-chemical link through the many successional stages of a forest (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe and Franklin, 1988, pg41-par3).
168. Logging is removing material that would have resided on the forest floor for long periods and would have added to spatial, chemical, and biotic diversity of forest soils, and to the processes that maintain long-term forest productivity (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg44-par3).
169. Logging reduces diversity in forest communities by depletion. Fallen trees do create and maintain diversity in forest communities (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg44-par3).
170. Logging reduces decaying wood that would have positively enhanced environment for mycorrhizae. In other words, logging reduces good conditions for mycorrhizae (Maser, Tarrant, Trappe, and Franklin, 1988, pg120-par4).
171. Logging removes future sites that would have served for reproduction of tree species (Franklin, Cromack, Kermit, et al. others, 1981).
172. Logging is removing a clearly important function of a system containing trees (Franklin, Cromack, Kermit, et al. others, 1981).
173. Note: The phenomenon of nurse logs is widespread in the forest types of the Pacific North- west. Minore (1972) found that seedlings of both Sitka spruce and western hemlocks were more numerous and taller on so called rotten logs than on the adjacent forest floor at Cascade Head Experimental Forest (Franklin, Cromack, Kermit, et al. others, 1981).
174. Logging removes CWD that would have functioned as seedbeds or nurse logs for some trees species and many species of bryophytes, fungi, and lichens, and some flowering plants (Table 7.6) (Samuelsson et al. 1994; D.F. Fraser, pers. comm., 1995; E.C. Lea, pers. comm., 1995) (Voller and Harrison, 1998).
175. Note: In the Crowsnest Forest, 40-70% of natural seedlings were rooted in decayed wood in old growth and 24% were rooted in decayed wood in cutblocks (S. Berch, pers. comm., 1995). CWD may be important to the establishment of vascular plants around wet sites such as ponds and bogs (Voller and Harrison, 1998).
176. NOTE: Page 203 has a list of some vascular plants closely associated with CWD in BC (Voller and Harrison, 1998).
177. Conclusion: The capacity and ability, of CWD, to enhance the health of threatened and endangered species too often goes unobserved such as in the Painter Run Windthrow Salvage Project.
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